Jan 23, 2010

SOLAR ENERGY POWER GENERATING


1.Introducing

The condition of our earth more and more pathetic because of environmental contamination from the greenhouse effect (greenhouse effect) that causes global warming, acid rain, ozone layer destruction to the loss of tropical forests. All types of pollution that the average result of the use of fossil fuels such as oil, uranium, plutonium, coal and other never-ending. And we know that fossil fuels from non-renewable, unlike the material of non-fossil fuel.

With such conditions was concerned, the movement's energy was a must in the world. One of them with fuel-efficient and use fuel from non-fossil renewable energy such as wind, hydropower, geothermal energy, solar, and others. Duniapun trend has begun to change the production and use of fuel, from fossil fuel switching to fuel non-fossil fuels, particularly solar power is not unlimited.


System Solar Power Plant (PLTS) will be more desirable because it can be used for any purposes and on the go: big buildings, factories, housing, and others. In addition to unlimited supply, solar power with almost no adverse effects on the environment than fuel lainnya.Di countries such as Japan industrialized, the United States, and several countries in Europe with the help of subsidies from the government has launched programs to popularize solar power it. Not only in countries like India are developing, Mongol campaigns that use sources of renewable energy continues to be done. To better know what solar power plants, or we briefly with the PLTS in this paper will briefly described the components that make up the PLTS, solar electricity systems and technology trends.

2. THE CONCEPT OF WORK SYSTEMS PLTS

Solar power plant is a simple concept. That is changing sunlight into electrical energy. Sunlight is one form of energy from natural resources. The sun's natural resources are now widely used to supply electrical power in the satellite communications through solar cells. These solar cells can produce electrical energy in an unlimited amount drawn directly from the sun, with no rotating parts and does not require fuel. So the solar cell systems are often said to clean and environmentally friendly.

Badingkan with an electric generator, a rotating part and require fuel to produce electricity. His voice is loud. In addition the resulting exhaust gas may cause the effects of greenhouse gases (green house gases) whose influence can destroy ecosystems of our planet.

Solar cell system used in the earth's surface consists of solar cell panels, charging controller circuit (charge controller), and the battery (batteries) a 12-volt maintenance free. Solar cell panel is a module that consists of several solar cells combined in series and parallel connect depending on the size and capacity required. Which is often used is the solar cell module 20 watts or 30 watts. Solar cell module that produces electrical energy which is proportional to the panel surface area is exposed to sunlight.

Battery charging controller circuit in the solar cell system is an electronic circuit that regulates the battery charging process. This controller can adjust the battery voltage in the tube voltage 12 volts plus minus 10 percent. When the voltage drops to 10.8 volts, then the controller will fill the batteries with solar panels as power sources. Of course, the charging process will occur if there is progress at the time of the sun. If the voltage drop that occurs at night, then the controller will cut off the supply of electrical energy. After the filling process that lasted for several hours, the battery voltage will rise. If the battery voltage reaches 13.2 volts, then the controller will stop charging the battery is.

Charging controller circuit is actually easy to assemble yourself. But, this is usually a series of controllers are available in a state so in the market. Indeed the price was quite expensive controllers if purchased as separate units. Most of the solar cell system is only sold as a complete package ready. Thus, solar cell systems in the form of a complete package that is clearly more expensive than when assembling itself.

Usually solar panels were placed in a static position facing the sun. And the earth was moving around the sun. Earth orbit taken with a sun-shaped elip is in one of the focal point. Because the sun moves at an angle is always changing, so the position of solar panels that are static will not obtain the optimal electrical energy. In order to absorb the maximum, the sun was to be undertaken always fall perpendicular to the surface of solar panels. Thus, to obtain optimum electrical energy, solar cell systems that still must be also equipped with optional controller circuit to adjust the solar panel surface in order to always face the sun so that the rays fell mahatari nearly perpendicular to the panel suryanya. Such controllers can be constructed, for example, by using 8031 microcontroller. This controller was not simple, because it consists of the hardware and software parts. Typically, the solar cell system package complete excluding the controller to move the solar panels automatically to let the sun falling perpendicular. Therefore, this kind of controller is quite expensive.

2.1. Photovoltaic. How the system Solar Power Plant by using Grid-Connected Photovoltaic solar cell panels for housing:

Photovoltaic solar cell modules transform solar energy into DC electricity. DC electrical current generated will be channeled through an inverter (energy regulator) which turn it into an AC power flow, and also automatically adjust the entire system. AC power will be distributed through an indoor distribution panel that will flow as needed electrical appliances. Large and the cost of electricity consumption is used in the home will be measured by a Watt-Hour Meters.

The main component of solar photovoltaic system is a module which is the unit assembled some photovoltaic solar cells. To create a manufacturing photovoltaic modules can use technology and thin film crystals. Crystal photovoltaic modules can be made with relatively simple technology, and to make photovoltaic cells required high technology.

Photovoltaic modules are composed of several photovoltaic cells connected in series and parallel. The cost to make solar cell module that is equal to 60% of the total cost. So, if the solar cell modules that can be produced in the country is going to save development costs PLTS. For this reason, solar cell module manufacturing in Indonesia's first stage is to create a frame (frame), then make a laminate with cells that were imported. If the market demand is making the cell much done at home. This is because the solar cell manufacturing technology with the material and the poly silicon single cristal theoretically already mastered. In the field of photovoltaics used in PLTS, Indonesia had already passed the stages of research and development and now into the stage of implementation and installation for the electrification to rural areas.

This technology is quite sophisticated and profits are low cost, clean, easy to install and operate and easy to maintain. While the main obstacle in the development of photovoltaic solar energy is a large initial investment and the price per kWh of electricity generated is relatively high, because it requires a subsystem that consists of the battery, regulator and an inverter unit according to his needs.

Own solar cell materials consisting of glass and protective material that protects the adhesive transparent solar cell materials from the environment, anti-reflection material to absorb more light and reduce the amount of reflected light, semi-conductor P-type and N-type (made of a mixture silicon) to generate an electric field, initial channel and the channel end (tebuat of thin metal) to send the electron to the electric appliances.
How it works solar cells themselves are identical to the semiconductor diode devices. When the light contact with solar cell and absorbed by the semi-conductor material, the loss of electrons occurs. If the electrons can travel to the semi-conductor materials in different layers, sigma change the forces on the material. Style repulsion between the semi-conductor material, causing the flow of electric field. And causes the electrons can be channeled to the beginning and end of the channel to be used on electrical appliances.

2. COMPONENTS - COMPONENTS OF PLTS3.

1. Solar ModuleDalam this section will briefly described the main components of the solar module PLTS. Having to explain it, then continued with the trend of future technologies related to solar module.

Before discussing the system of solar power, will first briefly described an important component in this system that serves as a change of sunlight energy into electrical energy. Electricity generated by solar energy components, called solar cell, the amount of about 10 ~ 15 cm square. These components convert the energy from sunlight into electrical energy. Solar cell is a vital component that is usually made of semiconductor materials. multicrystalline silicon is the material most widely used in solar cell industry. Multicrystalline and efficiency monocrystalline silicon that relativism is higher than amorphous silicon. While silicon is used as amorphus costs lower relativism. Apart from the above non-organic materials used are organic molecules, although still in the stage one penelitian.Sebagai performance measure is the efficiency of solar cell. Ie percentage change in light energy into electrical energy. The efficiency of current solar cell production vary widely. Monocrystalline silicon has a efficiency of 12 ~ 15%. Efficiency of Multicrystalline silicon has 10 ~ 13%. Efficiency of amorphous silicon has a 6 ~ 9%. But with the discovery of new methods is now the efficiency of multicrystalline silicon can reach 16.0% while monocrystalline can reach more than 17%. Even in a conference in September 2000, the company Sanyo announced that they will produce solar cells having efficiencies of 20.7%. This is the greatest efficiency ever dicapai.Tenaga electricity generated by a single solar cell is very small so a solar cell must be combined, forming a unit called a module components. Products issued by industries are solar cell module in ini.Pada applikasinya, because the electric power generated by one module is still quite small (maximum average power generated 130 W) is the utilization of a module are combined and formed what called array. For example, to produce 3 kW of electricity needed for wide array of approximately 20 ~ 30 meters square. More clearly again, using the production module are numbered Sharp NE-J130A series which has 15.3% efficiency area 23.1m2 required to produce electricity for 3:00 kW. The amount of capacity installed PLTS who want the area to add more details pemasangan.Untuk, module hierarchy can be seen in Fig. 2.1. Hierarchy module (cell-module-array)

AC module

As already explained above module is the component that converts sunlight energy into electrical energy. Electricity produced is DC. To be used more often these DC power converted into AC. To changed the DC power from a module are combined and converted into AC with a device called a power conditioner. Because combining electricity from a module so the system becomes complicated and pengkabelannnya required capacity of power conditionernya became besar.Untuk overcome these problems, then developed what is now called AC module. Module that is directly produce AC electricity. In principle there are no changes that occur, but technologically necessary small-scale power conditioner that can be installed behind the module.Contoh power conditioner is now being marketed.

Power Conditioner JH40EK

Fig. 3.3. Sharp is the product of which can be connected to 8 ~ 9 sheets module. The weight of this tool is 25 kg.Dua above trend is more on providing value-added module to be more widely utilized. Besides two of these things in order to support the development of more memasyarakatnya solar power plant is looking for new methods to reduce the cost per watt of electricity produced.

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